Re-assemble Original Sheet and Reveal Watermark

An Octavo is made up of gatherings of sheets of paper all of which have 8 pages printed on both sides.

The following video shows how an octavo is made:

The following image shows one side (the inner forme) of the first gathering (A) of the Uppsala copy of the first book printed in Finnish – ABC-Kirja, Agricola M, Stockholm Amund Larsson.


The following image shows the same side by back lighting.

The following video shows a re-assembled sheet from the Vilnius copy of the first book printed in Lithuanian – Mažvydas Catechismvsa Prasty Szadei Kaliningrad. 1547. It reveals the crown watermark:

Taken from the forthcoming …

The Book – Revealing Watermarks


The 1547 Lithuanian book also has numerous music annotations.

Click here for the Voice and Music of Ms. Aušrinė Aurelia Apanavičiūtė.


Recording from the Roman Catholic St Casimir Lithuanian Church, London, funded by the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod.